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Cervical Cancer

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Any woman who is sexually active is at risk of genital HPV at some time in their life.  However more than 90 percent of the infections can be cured within 1-2 years without causing symptoms or diseases.

Using a latex male condom or a female condom can greatly reduce, but not entirely eliminate the risk.

Although having only one sexual partner it is still possible to be infected so cervical cancer screening is important.

Risk Factors:

  • Starting to have sex at an earlier age, younger than 18.
  • Having multiple sexual partners
  • Women who have had more than three full-term pregnancies.
  • Immune system deficiency
  • Had a history of sexually transmitted infections such as herpes, gonorrhea, etc.
  • Smoking.

Symptoms/Warning signs:

  1. Bleeding after sexual intercourse or Blood spots or light bleeding between periods.
  2. Menstrual bleeding that is longer and heavier than usual.
  3. Loss of appetite, weight loss
  4. Increased vaginal discharge.
  5. Blood in stool or blood in urine
  6. In case where the disease is in the advanced stages, it may cause pain in the lower abdomen, difficulty defecating or passing urine or renal failure.
  7. Swollen legs, which could mean that cervical cancer has spread to the lymph nodes.


  • Liquid Based Pap test

In a liquid-based Pap test, the cells are rinsed into a small container of liquid. The cells are then placed onto slides by special equipment and examined under a microscope to see if the cells are abnormal. There is 74 percent more sensitivity for disease detection. Recommended to repeat the examination every 1-2 years.

  • HPV DNA Test

The sample of cervical cells collected for the test allows doctors to identify 14 high-risk types of HPV, including HPV 16 and HPV 18. This involves a more detailed examination of the cervical cells. HPV DNA Test may be combined with Liquid Based Pap Test;and this will increase to 100 percent of the accuracy in disgnosing lesions. Recommended to repeat the examination every 3 years.

  • Sexually active women should have a Pap smear test each year
  • Women who have never been sexually active, should still have a Pap smear test at age 21 years.
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